Maharashtra Board Text books

Maharashtra Board Class 11 Maths Part 2 Chapter 3 Permutations and Combination Ex 3.5 Solution

Question 1.
In how many different ways can 8 friends sit around a table?
Solution:

We know that ‘n’ persons can sit around a table in (n – 1)! ways.
∴ 8 friends can sit around a table in 7!
= 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1
= 5040 ways.

Question 2.
A party has 20 participants. Find the number of distinct ways for the host to sit with them around a circular table. How many of these ways have two specified persons on either side of the host?
Solution:

A party has 20 participants.
All of them and the host (i.e., 21 persons) can be seated at a circular table in (21 – 1)! = 20! ways.
When two particular participants are seated on either side of the host.
The host takes the chair in 1 way.
These 2 persons can sit on either side of the host in 2! ways.
Once the host occupies his chair, it is not circular permutation more.
The remaining 18 people occupy their chairs in 18! ways.
∴ A total number of arrangements possible if two particular participants are seated on either side of the host = 2! × 18! = 2 × 18!

Question 3.
Delegates from 24 countries participate in a round table discussion. Find the number of seating arrangements where two specified delegates are (a) always together. (b) never together.
Solution:

(a) Delegates of 24 countries are to participate in a round table discussion such that two specified delegates are always together.
Let us consider these 2 delegates as one unit. They can be arranged among themselves in 2! ways.
Also, these two delegates are to be seated with 22 other delegates (i.e. total of 23) which can be done in (23 – 1)! = 22! ways.
∴ Required number of arrangements = 2! × 22!

(b) When 2 specified delegates are never together then, other 22 delegates can be participate in a round table discussion in (22 – 1)! = 21! ways.
∴ There are 22 places of which any 2 places can be filled by those 2 delegates so that they are never together.
word image 22658 1

= 22 × 21 × 21!
= 21 × 22 × 21!
= 21 × 22!

Question 4.
Find the number of ways for 15 people to sit around the table so that no two arrangements have the same neighbours.
Solution:

There are 15 people to sit around a table.
∴ They can be arranged in(15 – 1)! = 14! ways.
But, they should not have the same neighbour in any two arrangements.
Around the table, arrangements (i.e., clockwise and anticlockwise) coincide.
word image 22658 2
∴ Required number of arrangements = 14!2

Question 5.
A committee of 10 members sits around a table. Find the number of arrangements that have the President and the Vice-president together.
Solution:
A committee of 10 members sits around a table.
But, President and Vice-president sit together.
Let us consider President and Vice-president as one unit.
They can be arranged among themselves in 2! ways.
Now, this unit with the other 8 members of the committee is to be arranged around a table, which can be done in (9 – 1)! = 8! ways.
∴ Required number of arrangements = 8! × 2! = 2 × 8!

Question 6.
Five men, two women, and a child sit around a table. Find the number of arrangements where the child is seated (a) between the two women. (b) between two men.
Solution:

5 men, 2 women, and a child sit around a table.
(a) When the child is seated between two women.
5 men, 2 women, and a child are to be seated around a round table such that the child is seated between two women.
∴ the two women can be seated on either side of the child in 2! ways.
Let us consider these 3 (two women and a child) as one unit.
Now, this one unit is to be arranged with the remaining 5 men,
i.e., a total of 6 units are to be arranged around a round table, which can be done in (6 – 1)! = 5! ways.
∴ Required number of arrangements = 5! × 2!
= 120 × 2
= 240

(b) Two men can be selected from 5 men in
word image 22658 3
Also, these two men can sit on either side of the child in 2! ways.
Let us take two men and a child as one unit.
Now, this one unit is to be arranged with the remaining 3 men and 2 women,
i.e., a total of 6 units (3 + 2 + 1) are to be arranged around a round table, which can be done in (6 – 1)! = 5! ways.
∴ Required number of arrangements = 10 × 2! × 5!
= 10 × 2 × 120
= 2400

Question 7.
Eight men and six women sit around a table. How many sitting arrangements will have no two women together?
Solution:

8 men can be seated around a table in (8 – 1)! = 7! ways.
No two women should sit together.
There are 8 gaps created by 8 men’s seats.
word image 22658 4

Question 8.
Find the number of seating arrangements for 3 men and 3 women to sit around a table so that exactly two women are together.
Solution:

2 women (who wish to sit together) can be selected from 3 in
word image 22658 5
Also, these two women can sit together in 2! ways.
Let us take two women as one unit.
Now, this one unit is to be arranged with the remaining 3 men and 1 woman,
i.e., a total of 5 units are to be arranged around a round table, which can be done in (5 – 1)! = 4! ways.
∴ Required number of arrangements = 3 × 2! × 4!
= 3 × 2 × 24
= 144

Question 9.
Four objects in a set of ten objects are alike. Find the number of ways of arranging them in a circular order.
Solution:
word image 22658 6

Question 10.
Fifteen persons sit around a table. Find the number of arrangements that have two specified persons not sitting side by side.
Solution:

Since 2 particular persons can’t be sitting side by side,
the other 13 persons can be arranged around the table in (13 – 1)! = 12! ways.
The two persons who are not sitting side by side may take 13 positions created by 3 persons in 13P2 ways.
∴ Required number of arrangements = 12! × 13P2
= 12! × 13 × 12
= 13 × 12! × 12
= 12 × 13!

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