Maharashtra Board Text books

Maharashtra State Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 7 India and Iran (Persia)

1A. Choose the correct alternative and write the complete sentences.

Question 1.
The Greek historian ___________ is said to be the father of modern historiography.
(a) Herodotus
(b) Alexander
(c) Scylax
(d) Daryush
(a) Herodotus

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 7 India and Iran (Persia)

Question 2.
Taxila was ruled by King ___________ at the time of Alexander’s advent.
(a) Chandragupta
(b) Ambhi
(c) Porus
(d) Shashigupta
(b) Ambhi

1B. Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.

Question 1.

Set ‘A’Set ‘B’
(a) PersopolisCity built by Daryush-I
(b) HalicarnassusHerodotus was born here
(c) TaxilaCentre of knowledge and education
(d) NysaPersian settlement

(d) Nysa – Greek settlement

1C. Write the names.

Question 1.
Last emperor of Achaemenid Empire-
Daryush – III

Question 2.
Name of coins issued by Daryush-I
Darik and Siglos

Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 7 India and Iran (Persia)

2. Explain the statements with reasons.

Question 1.
Alexander invaded Persia.

  • The Persians invaded Greece but were defeated. Thereafter the conflict between the Achaemenids and Greeks continued over a prolonged time.
  • An impact of this conflict was to manifest in the way of the invasion of Persia by Alexander III, the King of Macedonia.
  • Thus, Alexander invaded Persia.

Question 2.
Alexanders’ invasion of India did not have a far-reaching impact on the political scenario of India.

  • Alexander invaded India and conquered some kingdoms from Afghanistan to Sindh-Punjab. He could not however establish his rule for a long time.
  • After his confrontation with Porus, Alexander proceeded in the direction of Chenab and Ravi.
  • He conquered the kingdoms on the way and reached the bank of Beas. Alexander’s soldiers had lost spirit and they refused to march forward.
  • Before setting on the return journey. Alexander handed over the regions in Punjab to Porus and those in Sindh to Ambhi.
  • He appointed Greek satraps and in 325 B.C.E.
  • Alexander died in Babylon. After his death, Chandragupta Maurya established his vast empire from Bihar to Afghanistan.

3. State your opinion.

Question 1.
Herodotus is said to be the father of modern history writing.

  • Herodotus was the first historian who collected information-seeking answers to a particular question and then put it in chronological order. While doing this he did not bring in notions like a god, human destiny, etc.
  • Putting historical events in a chronological sequence became an essential theme of history writing.
  • This theme proved to be fundamental in the development of history writing as an independent discipline.
  • Therefore, Herodotus is said to be the father of historiography.

Question 2.
Ancient Taxila was the center of knowledge and education.

  • Buddhist literature and writings of the Greek historians give information about Taxila.
  • There were several learned individuals (Acharyas) staying in Taxila.
  • Many students from various regions of the Indian subcontinent were attracted to Taxila because of the fame of the acharyas.
  • Thus, Taxila had become a great center of education.
  • Thereby it had assumed the magnitude of a natural university.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 7 India and Iran (Persia)

4. Answers the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Describe the political and cultural effects of the Achaemenid rule on India.

  • The Persian supremacy prevailed in the Indian subcontinent for at least two centuries.
  • The Persian rulers set up an administrative system.
  • Every conquered region was annexed to their territory as a satrapy and a satrap (governor) was appointed as its chief administrator.
  • A newly opened waterway for the transport between Persia and the Indian subcontinent facilitated trade between Achaemenid provinces in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent and the regions of Sindh-Punjab.
  • The ivory and teak exported from India had great demand in the Persian markets. The architects, sculptors, and other artisans lost the royal patronage so they had to move out in search of work. They migrated to India.
  • They received royal patronage in the court of emperor Ashoka. Their style is reflected in the stone pillars erected by Emperor Ashoka.
  • Thus, the sculptural art in ancient India has its roots in the Persian; and accordingly, in the Greek sculptural style.

Question 2.
Describe Alexander’s invasion of India.

  • Alexander invaded the Indian subcontinent and conquered some kingdoms from Afghanistan to Sindh-Punjab.
  • He, however, could not establish his rule there for a long time.
  • Alexander became the king of Macedonia in 334 B.C.E. He defeated emperor Daryush III in 331 B.C.E.
  • After conquering the region of Kabul, he reached the foothills of the Hindukush mountains.
  • Then he camped at a place called Nicaea situated on Uttarapatha. Ambhi welcomed Alexander and sought friendship with him.
  • Alexander conquered almost all kingdoms in Kabul, Sindh, and Punjab.
  • On the bank of Jhelum, Alexander and King Porus confronted each other and there was a fierce battle between them.
  • Porus was defeated but Alexander and his army were greatly influenced by his valour.
  • Alexander’s soldiers had lost spirit due to the frequent battles and refused to march forward. Alexander was forced to return.
  • Before returning, Alexander handed over the regions in Punjab.
Maharashtra Board Class 11 History Solutions Chapter 7 India and Iran (Persia)


Collect additional information about the palace at Persepolis and Apadana at Susa with the help of the internet.

  • Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
  • Earliest evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC.
  • Apadana at Susa.
  • Apadana is a large hypostyle hall. The palace complex in Susa, Iran, the capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
  • The construction was parallel to that of Persepolis. This palace was built during the reign of Darius I, the Great.