Maharashtra Board Text books

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

1. (A) Complete the following statements by selecting the appropriate option.

Question 1.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first Prime Minister of
(a) Bangladesh
(b) Pakistan
(c) Iran
(d) Afghanistan
Answer:
(a) Bangladesh

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

Question 2.
In 1987, India sent a Peacekeeping Force (IPKF) to
(a) Bangladesh
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Somalia
(d) Vietnam
Answer:
(b) Sri Lanka

(B) Identify the incorrect pair in every set and correct it.

Question 1.
(a) NATO – Europe
(b) ANZUS Africa
(c) SEATO – South East Asia
(d) CENTO – West Asia
Answer:
(c) Sri Lanka – Jayewardene

2. State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.

Question 1.
Myanmar has been a traditional friend of India.
Answer:
This statement is True.

  1. India and Myanmar (formerly Burma) have a long historical and cultural relations. In fact, Burma a part of British India from 1824 to 1937.
  2. India established diplomatic relations after Myanmar’s independence in 1948. However, Indo- Myanmar ties got strained since India supported pro-democracy movements in Myanmar against the ruling military Junta. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC and cooperate to counteract drug trafficking and insurgent groups like Arakan Army operating in the border areas.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

Question 2.
In changing world order of 1990s, the issue of terrorism has been dominant.
Answer:
This statement is True.
1. Terrorism refers to the use of or the threat to use violence with the intention to destabilise the political system, cause economic harm and panic in society towards the attainment of some religious or ideological goals.

2. Post 1900s, terrorism has become a global phenomenon with forms like cross-border terrorism, international terrorism etc., causing widespread destruction e.g., 2001 attack in the USA by Al-Qaeda, attacks in Bali, Kabul, Mumbai, Madrid, etc. Each Country in the world is involved in trying to secure its territory and deal with terrorism e.g., US led ‘War on Terror’.

Question 3.
The Sagarmala project is a more comprehensive road connectivity plan.
Answer:
This statement is False.

  1. India has sought to harness it’s 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways and strategic location on key international maritime trade routes through two compatible programmes viz. Sagarmala and Bharatmala.
  2. Sagarmala programme aims to promote port and river transport systems and Bharatmala programme is a comprehensive road connectivity plan.

3. Express your opinion of the following.

Question 1.
India’s role in the Indian Ocean
Answer:
The Indian Ocean is one of the most busy and critical maritime transportation links in the world. The economies of littoral countries depend heavily on ports, shipping and vast natural resources. India’s vast coastline of about 7500 km presents both opportunity and challenge to India in terms of security and foreign perspectives. India’s exclusive economic zone is 2.4 million sq. kms. 90% of our trade by volume and almost all oil imports come through the sea. India is a co-founder of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation in 1997 (IORA).

The main objective of IORA is to promote sustained, balanced development of the Indian Ocean region. India has initiated the Sagarmala and Bharatmala programmes to harness India’s coastline.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

4. Answer the following

Question 1.
Write a note on India’s relations with Africa.
Answer:
In the first few decades after independence, India supported the fight against apartheid and provided financial and material aid to liberation struggles in Africa for eg., the AFRICA Fund created at the NAM Summit (Harare)
There are several issues in the context of India-African relations-

  1. The India-Africa summit was held in 2015
  2. About 24 percent of Indian crude oil imports are sourced from the African continent e.g., ONGC Videsh has invested in Sudan and Egypt
  3. About two million people in Eastern and Southern Africa constitute the India diaspora which is considered as an asset by the Indian government
  4. Indian industries are interested in offering technological and material services to developing African nations
  5. India continues to be one of the military training destination e.g., National Defence Academy, Pune has the ‘Sudan Block’ as a symbol of cooperation between India and Sudan
  6. Countries from Somalia to South Africa fall under the India maritime strategic perspective. Hence, cases of terrorism and piracy in Somalian waters have made this region sensitive to Indian concerns.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

Question 2.
Briefly Discuss India-China relations.
Answer:
In 1949, the Communist revolution took place in China. India was among the first nations to recognize the People’s Republic of China. In 1954, India and China signed the Panchsheel Agreement and India also recognised Chinese suzerainty on Tibet. The main hindrances in Sino- Indian relations are-

  1. 1962 Indo-China war and 2017 Dokhlam skirmish.
  2. Border disputes in Aksai Chin and NEFA region.
  3. China has been critical of India offering political asylum to the Dalai Lama.
  4. Chinese support to Pakistan.
  5. India’s apprehensions about China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

On the positive side India-China relationship has improved

  1. Agreement on maintenance of peace and tranquility along the LOC.
  2. China has become among the largest trading partners of India.
  3. India and China are part of BRICS and SCO.
  4. In the late 1990s, Russia mooted the idea of a Trilateral Summit of Russia, China, India which was a recognition of India’s status as a major regional power.

5. Answer the following question with reference to the given points.

Question 1.
Explain the factors influencing Indian foreign policy.
(a) Geography
(b) History
(c) International System Economy
(d) Policy
Answer:
Factors Influencing India’s Foreign Policy-
1. Geography – The extensive coastline of the India peninsula and the Himalayan mountain ranges have shaped India’s security and foreign policy. India shares a border with all neighbouring countries of South Asia. It also holds a dominant position in the India Ocean.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

2. History – It includes the influence of traditional cultural values, cultural ties as well as values like anti-colonialism which were imbibed during the freedom struggle.

3. Economy – The strong urge to come out of the poverty and economic backwardness created by the colonial period as well as the policy of Non-Alignment shaped India’s foreign policy. India followed democratic socialism through the policy of import-substitution and importance to the public sector Post 1991, after adopting the policy of Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation many changes have occured in the Indian foreign policy.

4. Polity – Political leadership has a significant impact on India’s foreign policy for e.g., Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Narendra Modi have played a decisive role in determining India’s foreign policy. Ministry of External Affairs and National Security Advisor play an important role in formulating foreign policy.

Activity

Read the speech on Indian Foreign Policy given by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on All India Radio on 7th September 1946 and discuss it in class.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solutions Chapter 6 India and the World

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 India and the World Intext Questions and Answers

Activity (Text Book Page No. 60)

The First Summit Meeting of the Nonaligned countries at Belgrade (1961) finalized the criterion for nonalignment. Find out these criteria.
Answer:
Non-Aligned Movement:
The first summit of Non-Aligned countries was held in September 1961 at Belgrade and attended by representatives of 25 countries. The purpose of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was to help countries keep “national sovereignty, territorial integrity and security in their struggle against imperialism, colonialism, racism and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination or interference as well as against great power and bloc politics”.

The objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement are-

  1. To keep the newly independent nations of Asia and Africa away from the rivalry of the two viz. USA and Soviet Union
  2. To oppose colonialism, imperialism and racial discrimination.
  3. To eliminate all those factors and tendencies in the international arena that could lead to war.
  4. To advocate the sovereign equality of all States.
  5. To oppose the use of force and nuclear weapons in international disputes.