Maharashtra Board Text books

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question 1.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote an English letter against the ___________
(a) caste system
(b) child marriage
(c) practice of sati
(d) segregation of women (Purdah system)
Answer:
(c) practice of sati

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
‘Arya Samaj’ was founded by ___________
(a) Swami Vivekanand
(b) Mahatma Jotirao Phule
(c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(d) Ramaswamy Naikar
Answer:
(c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati

1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
(a) Brahmo SamajRaja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Satyashodhak SamajMahatma Jotirao Phule
(c) Paramhamsa SabhaMaharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde
(d) Ramkrishna MissionSwami Vivekanand

Answer:
Paramhamsa Sabha – Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar

2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question 1.
The title conferred on Raja Ram Mohan Roy by the Mughal Badshah-
Answer:
Raja

Question 2.
The one who founded ‘Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College’-
Answer:
Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan

Question 3.
The one who participated in ‘Vykom Satyagraha’-
Answer:
Ramaswamy Naikar

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms

Question 4.
The one who made the law of free and compulsory primary education in Kolhapur Princely State-
Answer:
Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj

3. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Prarthana Samaj.
Answer:
Prarthana Samaj:

  • Had its origins in Paramhamsa Sabha.
  • Founded by Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhadkar.
  • Founding members like Dr. Atmaram Pandurang, Justice M. G. Ranade, Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar opposed idol worship and emphasized monotheism.
  • Opened schools for girls, orphanages, and night schools for workers.
  • Focussed on gender equality, wiping outcaste discriminations, and appreciating the values of mundane life.

Question 2.
Satyashodhak Samaj.
Answer:
Satyashodhak Samaj:

  • Founded in 1873 by Mahatma Jotirao Phule in Pune.
  • Cracked a whip on the social customs and practices which pushed the Indian masses into a miserable state.
  • Showed a new path to artisans, workers, and other downtrodden people.
  • Characteristics of Satyashodhak Samaj included monotheism, rejection of the authority of Vedas and Puranas, acceptance of rationality, opposition to the dominance of priests and idol worship, etc.
  • Mahatma Phule and his wife Savitribai Phule started a school for girls.
  • His work was continued by Gopalbaba Walangkar who criticized untouchability in his book ‘Vital Vidhwamsan’.
  • Shivram Janba drew attention to the problems of deprived women like Murali, Jagatini, and Devdasi.

4. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
What were the social reforms on which Raja Ram Mohan Roy put a great emphasis?
Answer:
Contribution of Raja Ram Mohan Roy:

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in Bengal.
  • Translated Sanskrit Upanishads into Bengali.
  • He was a witness to his brother’s wife immolating herself on her husband’s funeral pyre and this incident made him raise his voice against this evil social custom which according to him is not mentioned in any of the religious scriptures as a prescribed social obligation.
  • It was due to the efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy that a law was passed by the Governor-General of Bengal Lord William Bentinck abolishing Sati in 1829.
  • He was also opposed to child marriage and purdah, opened an English medium school, launched the first periodical in Bengali, and also another publication in Persian.
  • He started ‘Atmiya Sabha’, a philosophical discussion circle,’ Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
  • He spoke in support of the anti-colonial movements in Spanish colonies in South America.
  • Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation of modernity in India.
  • Organizations like Manavdharma Sabha, Paramahamsa Sabha, and Dnyanprasar Sabha were inspired by his work.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms

Question 2.
Write about the contributions of the Ramkrishna Mission.
Answer:
Ramkrishna Mission:

  • Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramkrishna Mission in 1897.
  • Focussed on serving needy people, working for people affected by famine, health care for the sick people, education for women, etc.
  • It also gave a message to the Indian youth to get up to awaken and keep moving until the goal is achieved.

Question 3.
Write about the contributions of Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan.
Answer:
Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan:

  • Was born in 1817 in Delhi.
  • Fluent in Urdu, Persian, Arabic, and English.
  • Established ‘Scientific Society’ for Muslims.
  • After returning from England he founded the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875 which later developed into ‘Aligarh Muslim University.
  • Started a periodical entitled ‘Mohammadan Social Reformer’.
  • Worked for the propagation of modern education, science, and technology.

Question 4.
Describe the contribution of Ramaswamy Naikar.
Answer:
Ramaswamy Naikar:

  • Born in ‘Erode’ in Tamil Nadu in 1879.
  • He became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy and worked for propagating the use of ‘Swadeshi’.
  • He participated in the Vykom Satyagraha in Travancore against untouchability.
  • Started the ‘Swabhiman Andolan’ in Tamil Nadu.
  • Fought against the varna system and child marriage.
  • He was addressed as ‘Periyar’ or Great Soul because of his magnanimous work.
  • Was a great speaker and author.
  • Took a radical position on issues like women’s rights and family planning.

Class 12 History Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms Intext Questions and Answers

Let us find out. (Textbook Page No. 36)

Collect information about ‘Singh Sabha’ that was founded in Amritsar.
Answer:
The Singh Sabha Movement was a Sikh movement that began in Punjab in the 1870s in reaction to the proselytizing activities of Christians, Hindu reform movements (Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj), and Muslims (Aligarh movement and Ahmadiyah). The movement was founded in an era when the Sikh Empire had been dissolved and annexed by the British, the Khalsa had lost its prestige, and mainstream Sikhs were rapidly converting to other religions.

The movement’s aims were to propagate the true Sikh religion and restore Sikhism to its pristine glory; to write and distribute historical and religious books of Sikhs, and to propagate Gurmukhi Punjabi through magazines and media. The movement sought to reform Sikhism and bring back into the Sikh fold the apostates who had converted to other religions; as well as to interest the influential British officials in furthering the Sikh community. At the time of its founding, the Singh Sabha policy was to avoid criticism of other religions and political matters.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms

Try to do this (Textbook Page No. 36)

Collect information with the help of the internet and teachers about these people: Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Vishnushastri Pandit, Veereshlingam Pantalu, and Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve.
Answer:
(A) Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:

  • Pandit Vidyasagar was born on 26th September 1820 in the Midnapore district of Bengal Presidency (now in West Bengal).
  • A Sanskrit scholar, he joined Fort William College as the Head Pandit in the Sanskrit department in 1846.
  • In 1846, he left Fort William and joined Sanskrit College as ‘Assistant Secretary’.
  • In 1851, he became the principal of Sanskrit College.
  • In 1854, Vidyasagar started his campaign for widow remarriage.
  • Due to his efforts, the ‘Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856.
  • He was keen to advocate for education for women.
  • He exercised his power and lobbied hard for the opening of schools for girls.
  • He gave more importance to educational reforms than social reforms.
  • He emphasized teaching through Mother’s tongue.
  • He has enriched Bengali Education System by writing many good textbooks for students.
  • Vidyasagar died in 1891 at the age of 70.

(B) Vishnushastri Pandit:

  • Vishnushastri Pandit was born in a Chitpavan Brahmin family to Sanskrit scholar Krishnashastri Chiplunkar.
  • Worked as a school teacher in government schools during the years 1872-1879.
  • Co-founded the newspapers Kesari (Marathi) and Mahratta (English) along with Lokmanya Tilak and Gopal Ganesh Agarkar.
  • Also co-founded The New English School in Pune.
  • Began his career as a writer
  • In 1874, he started the monthly ‘Nibandmala’ for which he is principally remembered.
  • Translated the following works in Marathi-
    • Rasselas by Samuel Johnson
    • Kadambari by Banabhatta
    • The Arabian Nights
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 5 India: Social and Religious Reforms

(C) Veereshlingam Pantalu:

  • Rao Bahadur Kandukuri Veereshlingam Pantalu was considered the ’Father of Renaissance movement in Telugu’.
  • Born on 16th April 1848 at Rajamundry, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Social reformer and writer at Madras Presidency under British rule.
  • After completing his matriculation in 1869, he started working as a school teacher in a village.
  • A scholar of three languages namely Telugu, Sanskrit, and English.
  • He is most revered for his contribution to the reformation of Telugu society.
  • Wrote extensively on the emancipation of women, advocated widow remarriage, and denounced child marriages.
  • Set up schools for the education of girls and women.
  • In 1887, he started a Brahmo Mandir at Rajamundry.
  • In 1893, the government of India conferred the title ‘RaoBahadur’ on him
  • He passed away on 27th May 1919 aged 71.

(D) Maharshi Dhondu Keshav Karve:

  • Born on 18th April 1858 at Sheravali, India, Dhondu Keshav Karve, or Maharshi Karve he was popularly known as a social reformer in India.
  • Was a Professor, Activist, Writer, and Social Worker.
  • Noted for supporting the education of women and for organizing associations for the marriage of Hindu widows.
  • In 1893, he established the Widow Marriage Association.
  • He set an example by marrying a widow after his first wife had died in 1891.
  • Established an educational institution in 1896, Hindu Widows Home in Poona.
  • He started Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women’s University in 1916.
  • On his 100th birthday, he was conferred India’s highest honour the ‘Bharat Ratna’.
  • He died in Pune on November 9, 1962, aged 104.

Project (Textbook Page No. 39)

Collect information about the efforts for women’s education in Maharashtra with the help of the internet.
Answer:
Students can use the following points as reference:

  • Trace women’s education down the ages.
  • Education in Maharashtra from 1818-1903.
  • Pioneer of Women’s education in India-Savitribai Phule.
  • Female literacy in Maharashtra today.
  • Schemes for women by the Government of Maharashtra.