Maharashtra Board Text books

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 6 Indian Struggle against Colonialism

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question 1.
The region of __________ had become a stronghold of Hansaji Naik.
(a) Satara
(b) Nanded
(c) Pune
(d) Nagpur
(b) Nanded

Question 2.
The British plant owners in Bihar were pressing the local farmers to grow only __________
(a) indigo
(b) tea
(c) coffee
(d) sugarcane
(a) indigo

Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 6 Indian Struggle against Colonialism

Question 3.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was presided by __________
(a) Dwarkanath Tagore
(b) Vyomeshchandra Banerjee
(c) Dadabhai Nauroji
(d) Surendranath Banerjee
(b) Vyomeshchandra Banerjee

1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.

Question 1.

Group ‘A’Group ‘B’
1.Kunwar SinhLucknow
2. Nanasaheb PeshwaKanpur
3. Queen LakshmibaiJhansi
4. ChimasahebKolhapur

Kunwar Singh – Patna

2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question 1.
The region of the regime of the parallel government established in 1942 –
Satara District

Question 2.
The islands were conquered by Azad Hind Sena from the British in 1943 –
Andaman and Nicobar Islands

3. Write short notes.

Question 1.
The Extremists.

  • The Indian National Congress split into two groups-The Moderates and The Extremists at the Surat session of the Congress in 1907.
  • The ‘Extremists’ wing of thinkers insisted that independence should be a natural priority. An independent nation could provide the right set-up for social reformation.
  • Lokmanya Tilak who was the leader of the Extremists said that the home taken over by others should be recovered first, then only we can reform it.
  • He also felt that the British Government will not yield to applications, requests, and speeches.
  • The Extremists did not agree with the Moderators’ policy of avoiding the resolutions of ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ and wanted to stop these attempts of the Moderators.
  • The three leaders of the Extremists group were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal. (Lal-Bal-Pal).
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 6 Indian Struggle against Colonialism

Question 2.
Azad Hind Sena.

  • The Azad Hind Sena was built by Rasbihari Bose by recruiting Indian soldiers and later on was reorganized under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • These were the Indian soldiers of the British army who were taken captive by the Japanese army.

Question 3.
Prati Sarkar.

  • Prati Sarkar or Parallel Government was established by Krantisinha Nana Patil, a revolutionist in the Satara district of Maharashtra.
  • He, with the help of his associates, put an end to the British regime in the Satara district and established ‘People’s Government’.
  • This government took over the administrative task of collecting revenue, maintaining law and order, solving court cases, and punishing criminals.

4. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Lieutenant Outram was successful in crushing the revolt by the Bhils by the end of 1822.

  • A revolt of the Bhils in which thousands of Bhils participated was crushed by Lt. Outram.
  • However, he also stayed among the Bhils and won their confidence. He tried to bring them into the mainstream of urban life.
  • He adopted measures like the declaration of amnesty, land grants, agricultural loans and reprieve from the past crimes, and recruitment in the army to weaken the opposition from the Bhils.

Question 2.
Ravindranath gave up his title (Sir.)

  • On 13th April 1919, the day of Baisakhi thousands of people had gathered for a meeting at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for celebrating the festival.
  • Many of them were not aware of the ban put by the government on public gatherings.
  • Genera Dyer opened fire on these people without any prior warning.
  • About four hundred innocent people were killed and thousands were injured in this incident. It is known as the ‘Jallianwala Bagh Massacre’.
  • It created a wave of rage all through India.
  • Rabindranath Tagore criticized this act and gave up his title (Sir).

5. State your opinion.

Question 1.
The rise of colonialism was the result of the spreading of European trade.

  • The Europeans reached all over the world for several reasons such as the urge for adventures, to earn a name to discover unknown lands, to search for gold mines, etc.
  • Later, trade and commerce increased to such a great extent for which there was economic, social, and political supremacy among them.
  • The Europeans found potential markets in continents like Asia, America, and Africa where they established their colonies. And the first to do so were the Portuguese.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 6 Indian Struggle against Colonialism

Question 2.
According to Swatantryaveer Savarkar, the Independence War of 1857 was the First War of Independence.

  • The revolt of 1857 was a unified and national uprising against the British authority.
  • The Indian war of Independence as described in his book ‘1857-The First War of Independence was considered to be the first war where the entire nation irrespective of caste, creed, race, and religion had come together and staged an armed protest against the British to gain independence from their colonial rule.

Class 12 History Chapter 6 Indian Struggle against Colonialism Intext Questions and Answers

Try this. (Textbook Page No. 43)

Collect more information about ‘Kayamdhara’, ‘Ryotwari’, ‘Mahalwari’ land revenue systems and discuss it in the class. Also, discuss the present land system of ‘Anewari’.
(A) Kayamdhara or Jamindari:

  • This system was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.
  • It was introduced in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and Varanasi.
  • Zamindars were recognized as the owners of the lands.
  • Zamindars were given the right to collect rent from the peasants.

(B) Ryotwari:

  • The Ryotwari system was a land revenue system in British India introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820 based on a system administered by Captain Alexander Read in the Baramahal district.
  • This was practiced in Madras and Bombay areas as well as Assam and Coorg provinces.
  • In this system, the peasants or cultivators were regarded as the owners of the land.
  • Ryot means peasant cultivator.

(C) Mahalwari system:

  • The government of Lord William Bentinck Governor-General of India (1828-1835) introduced the Mahalwari system of land revenue in 1833.
  • This system was introduced in N W Frontier, Agra, Gangetic Valley, Central Provinces, Punjab, etc.
  • Had elements of both the Zamindari and the Ryotwari systems.
  • This system divided the lands into Mahals. Sometimes the Mahals constituted one or more villages.
  • The tax was assessed on the Mahal.
  • Each individual farmer gave his share.
  • Revenue was collected by the village headman or village leaders (Lambardar).
Maharashtra Board Class 12 History Solutions Chapter 6 Indian Struggle against Colonialism

(D) Anewari System:

  • Paisewari (originally known as Anewari) is a system of survey used by the government to decide whether a village is drought-hit or not
  • Prior to the harvest, the Tehsildar along with farmers and representatives of the agricultural department takes stock of the crop and compares it with the yield of the last ten years
  • If the value is less than 50 paise, the village is declared drought-hit, and drought mitigating measures are put in place.

Try to do this: (Textbook Page No. 46)

Vishnubhat Godse from Vasai was in Jhansi in 1857. Get the book, ‘Maza Pravas’ authored by him as the eyewitness of the happenings and read it.

  • ‘Maza Pravas’ translates into English as “My Travels: The story of 1857 Mutiny” is a Marathi travelogue written by Vishnubhat Godse, who traveled on foot from Varsai, a village near Pen (present-day Maharashtra) to the Central and Northern parts of India during 1857-1858 and witnessed several incidents of what he calls “The Mutiny of 1857” also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
  • During his travel, he witnessed the events at Mhow, worked for the Rani of Jhansi for a few months, visited Ayodhya, eventually returning penniless to his village.
  • Apart from his encounters with the mutiny he also visited most of the Hindu holy places.

Try to do this: (Textbook Page No. 55)

Collect information and pictures about revolutionaries and freedom fighters from your area and make a presentation.
Students should do this activity by themselves

Projects (Textbook Page No. 56)

(a) The Rising Ballad of Mangal Panday
(b) The Legend of Bhagat Singh
(c) Khele Hum Jee Janse
These are some Hindi films. Watch them and verify the historical truth of the incidences shown in it.
Students do by themselves